The gradient, or slope, of a straight line is given by `frac(text(up))(text(along))`. In the example below, the line moves 6 up for each 2 along, and the gradient is `frac(6)(2)` = 3.
A gradient can be positive or negative. A line falling from left to right gives a negative gradient:
For each 2 along, the line falls by 3. This gives a gradient of `frac(-3)(2)` = -1.5. If a gradient is zero, it is horizontal. If a gradient is divided by 0, then it is vertical.
A straight line can be written as y = mx + c: m is the gradient, c is the intercept on the y-axis:
The gradient of the line is `frac(2)(1)` = 2, which is the m in y = mx + c. The c is where the line crosses x = 0: in this example the line crosses x = 0 with a value of y = 3. The equation is y = 2x + 3.
1. What is the gradient and intercept of the line y = -4x - 3?
Answer: The gradient is -4; the intercept is -3
Using y = mx + c, m = -4 and c = -3.
2. Two points on a line are (0, 4) and (1, 7). What is the equation of the line?
Answer: y = 3x + 4
The gradient is `frac(3)(1)`: the line moves up 3 for each 1 along. This gives the m value as y = 3x + c.
For the intercept: when x = 0, y = 4, 4 = 3 x 0 + c therefore c = 4.