Keyword | Meaning |
---|---|

dp | Abbreviation for Decimal Places eg 23.554 (3dp) means that the number 23.554 is accutrate to three decimal places |

dy/dx | The amount of change in y divided by the amount of change in x. See Differentiation. |

f(x) | A function that maps one number onto another. |

f`(x) | A differentiated function. See Differentiation. |

sf | Short for Significant Figures |

% | Sign for a percentage. |

( ) | Brackets are used to control the order of operations: calculations take place inside the brackets first. (3 + 4) x 2 = 14 |

... | Sets: it means that a sequence continues. eg Even Numbers = { 2, 4, 6, 8, ...} |

3d | Short for three-dimensional. A three-dimensional object has length, width and height |

: | Sets: read the symbol as `such that` |

< | Sign for Less Than. 6 < 4 |

= | Sign for Equal To. 4 = 2 x 2 |

> | Sign for Greater Than. 5 > 7 |

^c^ | Sets: Complement. All the values that are not in a given set. |

n(A) | Sets: the number of elements in a set. A={1, 3, 5}. n(A) = 3 |

nth term | Sequences: another name for a Gernal Term. The nth Term defines the formula that will give the value for that term. |

s = d/t | Speed = Distance / Time |

{ } | Sets: Elements contained between these brackets belong to a set. Set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} |

¦ | Sets: read the symbol as `such that` |

± | Plus or minus. eg 5±2 = 3 or 7 |

º | Sign for degrees (in an angle). eg 36º is 36 degrees |

ε | Sets: Universal Set. All the values under consideration. eg for 1 die, ε = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Sometimes written as U. |

μ | Symbol for micro (= x 10^-6^ |

π | Symbol for pi (circles). Normally use π=3.14, or use the π button the calculator |

ℕ | Sets: the set of all Natural Numbers. In some instances this set starts at 0; in other instances with 1. |

ℚ | Sets: the set of all Real numbers |

ℝ | Sets: the set of Rational Numbers |

ℤ | Sets: the set of all Integer numbers |

∅ | Sets: and empty set. eg A = { } |

∈ | Sets; an Element belongs to a set. 3 ∈{odd numbers} |

∉ | Sets; an Element does not belong to a set. 3 ∉ {even numbers] |

√ | Sign for a square root. eg 2 = √4 |

∛ | The cube root of a number. eg 3 = ∛27 |

∞ | Symbol for Infinity |

∠ | Sign for an angle |

∥ | Symbol for parallel to, or indicating parallel lines |

∩ | Sets: Intersection of two sets. eg {1, 2, 3,} ∩ {3, 4, 5} = {3} |

≈ | Sign for approximately equal to. eg 98 ≈ 100 |

≠ | Sign for Not Equal To. eg 3 ≠ 4 |

≡ | Identity: the expressions on either side of the sign are equivalent |

≤ | Sign for Less Than or Equal To. eg 5 ≤ 3 + 4 |

≥ | Sign for Greater Than or Equal To. eg 4 ≥ 2 + 2 |

⊂ | Sets: the first set is a Proper Subset of the second set. eg {1, 2, 4} ⊂ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} |

⊄ | Sets: not a Proper Subset |

⊆ | Sets: is a subset of. if A={1,2,3} and B={1,2,3} then it could be said that B⊆A |

⋃ | Sets: Union of two sets. eg {1, 2, 3} ⋃ {4, 5} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,} |

AM | Morning, which lasts from midnight to midday. AM is short for Ante Meridiem (before midday). |

Acceleration | The rate at which a speed, or velocity, is changing. If negative, then the speed is slowing down (decelleration). |

Accuracy | The exactness of a measurement and by how much it may be different from a true value |

Acute (angle) | An angle between 0 degrees and up to (but not including) 90 degrees. |

Adding | See addition |

Addition | Increasing the value of one number by the value of another (also add, adding) |

Algorithm | A sequence of logical steps, which can be repeated for other values |

Algorithm | A sequence of pre-defined steps that can be repeated. |

Alternate Angle | On a line crossing a set of parallel lines angles that lie on opposite sides of the crossing line on each parallel line. |

Alternate Segment | Circle Theorem. The angle between a tangent and a chord is equal to the angle on the circumference of the alternate (other side) segment. |

And | Logic: an item is in both lists |

Angle | An angle is the measurement of the turn between two intersecting lines. Angles are measured in degrees. |

Angle Bisector | A line that cuts an angle into two equal parts. See Bisector. |

Anticlockwise | A circular movement going down on the left side of a point and up on the right side of a point. |

Approximate | An estimated value that is close to a more accurate value; usually carried out to provide a check on an answer. |

Arc | Part of the Circumference of a Circle. |

Area | An area is a surface defined by a Perimeter. |

Area Ratio | An area ratio increases (or decreases by the square of the linear ratio. |

Arithmetic Sequence | A sequence of numbers, where the difference between each number in the sequence is the same. |

Ascending | Describes the order of numbers, where numbers increase in value |

Asset | The value of something that is owned by an organisation which can be changed for cash. |

Asymptote | A line on a graph that the graph tends towards, but never actually touches. |

Average Rate Of Change | The rate of change between two points on a curve (equivalent to a chord between two points). See Instantaneous Rate of Change. |

Average Speed | The distance divided by time between two points, irrespective of whether the speed was constant. |

Axes | Graph: a line along which values can be measured. Geometry: a line around which an object can be turned. Singular - axis. |

Axis Of Symmetry | For a quadratic , the Axis of Symmetry lies halfway between the two roots. |

Balance | The amount left after comparing two opposite items eg Assets and Liabilities, or Income and Expenditure, |

Bar Chart | A method of displaying data showing the data as bars up (or along) organised by the criteria being analyzed. The display of value is by height (or width). |

Base | A base number is a number that is being raised to a given power |

Bearing | An amount of turn. Bearings are always measured clockwise from Noprth, and always have three digits eg 062 degrees. |

Best Buys | Comparison of two items to see which is better value for money. See Unitary Method. |

Bias | Probability: the chance of something happening is influenced eg a weighted die (dice) |

Bidmas | Order of operations: Brackets; Indices; Division; Multiplication; Addition |

Bimodal | In statistics, where a set of data has two modes. See Mode. |

Bin Packing | The placing of items in a container |

Binomial | An expression that contains two terms, such as @(ax + n)@, where @a@ and @n@ are numbers. |

Bisector | A line that divides an angle (or other drawn item) equally into two. |

Bodmas | Order of operations: Brackets; Order; Division; Multiplication; Addition |

Box Plot | A depiction of data showing lowest and highest values, upper and lower quartiles, and the median. |

Box method | A method for carring out multiplication (also Grid Method) |

Box-and-whisker Diagram | See Box Plot. |

Brackets | Brackets (always shown in pairs, and may be shaped as (), [] or {}) are used to control the order of operation (see BIDMAS) |

Budget | A table that is used to balance income and expenditure over a number of periods. |

Calculate | Work out the answer |

Cancelling | Reducing the value of both the numerator and denominator of a fraction by dividing them both by an equal amount. The value of the fraction remains the same. |

Capacity | The amount of material or fluid that a container can hold. |

Capture : Recapture | A sampling process that involves randomly selecting items and marking them; then resampling to identify items selected twice |

Census | A survey of all people in a population. See also Sample. |

Centi | A prefix to show that a standard measure is divided by 100 eg 1 centimetre = 1 metre / 100. |

Centimetre | A metric measurement of length of one hundredth of a metre. See Metre. |

Centre | A fixed point from which measurement are taken. |

Centre Of Enlargement | The base point used to scale up (or down) the size of a shape. |

Centre Of Rotation | Geometry: the point around which a shape is being rotated. |

Certain | In probability, an event is bound to happen (on the probability scale, it has a value of 1) |

Chord | A line drawn from a point on a curve (or circumference) to another point on the same curve (or circumference). |

Chunking | A method for carrying out a division. Long Division is a preferred method. |

Circle | A 2D shape where every point on the line is the same distance from a fixed point. |

Circumference | The Perimeter of a circle |

Class | Statistics: grouping of data into defined ranges of values |

Class Interval | The value of the range between the highest and lowest boundaries of the class |

Class Width | See Class Interval |

Clockwise | A circular movement going up on the left side of a point and down on the right side of a point. |

Coefficient | The number at the start of an algebraic term. |

Collinear | Points are collinear if they are all on the same line, or vector. |

Column | On a table, a set of numbers reading down the table. See Row. |

Column Vector | A method of writing vectors. The vector values are written within brackets with the *x* value written above the *y* value) |

Common Denominator | When adding or subtracting fractions, then denominators must be the same, or common to both. |

Common Difference | The value between consecutive numbers in an Arithmetic Sequence. |

Common Fraction | A Fraction where both Numerator and Denominator are Integers (see Simple Fraction) |

Commutative | An operation on two numbers, where the order of the numbers is not important to the answer |

Comparitive Bar Chart | Another name for a Dual Bar Chart. |

Compasses | A device for drawing circles, consisting of a sharp point and a pen or pencil. |

Complement | A set of Elements that do not belong to a set. The set and its complement is the Universal Set. |

Completing The Square | Adding a constant term To arrange a quadratic expression to consist of a squared expression and a constant. |

Complex Roots | For a quadratic, the solutions cannot be expressed in real numbers (on a graph, does not cross the x-axis). Discriminant < 0. |

Composite Function | Two or more functions where the output from one function is used as the input to the next. Written as (for example) gf(x), where f(x) is applied to x, and g(x) is applied to the output from f(x). |

Composite Shape | A shape that consists of more than one simple shape. |

Compound Interest | Where the end amount for a period for which interest is being calculated is used as the start amount for the next period. |

Compound Measure | A measurement that includes more than one type of unit. |

Compound Shape | A shape made up with two or more simple shapes. |

Compound Units | A measurment that consists of more than one type of unit eg Density is measued using mass and volume |

Conditional Probabilty | The probability of an event occurring given that another event, which can influence the second event, has occurred. |

Cone | A shape that starts as a circle and uniformily moves to a point. |

Congruent | Geometry: when a shape can be moved, rotated or reflected exactly onto another shape, then the shapes are congruent |

Constant | A fixed value. |

Constant Of Proportionality | A constant, @k@, which is used to change a proportional relationship to an equation. |

Continuous | A measurement from a scale or rule, and which can deliver different degrees of accuracy eg length or height |

Continuous Data | Data that can take any value, normally based on measurement |

Coordinates | Values which give the position on a graph. Normally given as (x, y) where x is the value along and y is the value up. |

Correlation | The relationship between two sets of data |

Corresponding Angle | Where a straight line crosses two parallel lines, corresponding angles are the angles in the same relative position on each parallel line. |

Cos | The relationship between the angle, the Hypotenuse and teh Adjacent Side. Cos = Adjacent / Hypotenuse. |

Cosine | Trigonemtry: See Cos. |

Cost Price | The price for which an item is bought. |

Cube | Cubing is multiplying three instances of the number together. |

Cube Root | What number, when three versions of it are multiplied together, gives the number being cube rooted? |

Cube Sequence | A sequence generated by cubing the term value |

Cuboid | A rectangular 3D shape: all the vertices are right angles. |

Cumulative Frequency | The running total of frequencies. |

Cyclic Quadrilateral | A four-sided shape where each corner of the shape lies on th ecircumference of a circle. |

Cylinder | A prism where each end consists of a circle. A cylinder has no vertices. |

Data | A set of information organised in a common way |

Data Collection | The process of gathering information, organised by criteria defined before collection begins. |

Dataset | A set of data organised for processing |

Days | A period of time involving night, morning, afternoon, evening and night again. There are 365 days in a year, but see Leap Year. |

Decagon | A ten-sided 2D shape |

Deci- | Small number prefix: 1 x 10^{-1} |

Decimal | A number that contains a decimal point. The number consist of an integer part and a decimal part |

Decimal Part | That part of a number that is less than 1, ie to the right of the decimal point |

Decimal Places | The number of digits to the right the decimal point |

Decimal Point | This signifies the split between the integer part and the decimal part of a number |

Deductions | Items removed from Gross Pay, such as Income Tax, National Insurance, Pensions and Student Loans. |

Degrees | A measurement of an amount of turn. There are 360 degrees in a whole turn. |

Denominator | The number on the bottom of a fraction. The number that is doing the dividing (divisor) |

Density | The amount of mass for a given volume. Density = Mass / Volume. |

Dependent Event | In probability, an event that relies on an outcome from a previous event |

Depreciation | Recognises that the value of an item falls as it gets older, normally given as percentage. See also Asset. |

Descending | Describes the order of numbers, where numbers decrease in value. |

Diameter | A chord drawn across a circle through the centre. The diameter is twice the radius. |

Difference | This will often mean to carry out a subtraction |

Difference Of Two Squares | An expression of the form @x^2 - b@ which can be factorised to @(x + a)(x - a), where +a and -a are roots of b. |

Differentiation | A process that derives the rate of change, or gradient, of a function. |

Digits | Single numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) that may be part of a larger number |

Direct Proportion | One amount is a multiple of another amount. If a graph is draw of the relationship, the graph will go through the origin. |

Direction Of Rotation | The direction - clockwise or anticlockwise - of a turn around a Centre of Rotation. |

Discrete Data | Something that can be counted; such as cars, or students. |

Discriminant | In a quadratic, that portion in the solution for a quadratic that is under the square root, @b^2-4ac@ |

Distance Chart | A grid that shows distances between two locations. Often two pieces of data are represented eg miles/kilometres or distance/travel time. |

Distinct Roots | In a quadratic, the two solutions have different values (on a graph, crosses the x-axis twice). Discriminant > 0 |

Division | A calculation to determine how many instances of one number will go into another |

Divisor | A number that is dividing into another number |

Dual Bar Chart | A Bar Chart which shows two distinct sets of data, side by side, for comparison. See Bar Chart. |

Edge | On a three dimensional object, th eintersection between two planes. See Vertex and Plane. |

Element | Sets: individual items that make up a set |

Elevation | A side view of a shape. Often there are two elevations: a side elevation and a front elevation. See also Plan. |

Ellipses | A symbol ... (three dots) that means carry on a sequence of numbers |

Empirical | Working out information by experimentation. |

Empty Set | Sets: a set that contains no elements. eg A={}, A is an empty set |

Enlarged | Made bigger in size. |

Enlargement | Transformation: make a shape larger or smaller by a scale factor, and based on a point of enlargement. |

Equal Roots | For a quadratic, the two roots are equal in value (on a graph, just touches the x-axis). Discriminant = 0 |

Equal To | Two values are the same, represented by the = sign |

Equation | Setting up a variable and numbers so that the variable can be solved. Equations have an equals sign. |

Equilateral Triangle | A Triangle where all sides are te same length. All angles are the same (60 degrees). |

Equivalent Fraction | A fraction that has the same value as another fraction, although the numerators and denominators will be different |

Error Interval | The amount by which a measurement may be inaccurate. |

Estimate | An approximate, or rough, calculation based on less accurate or simplified numbers |

Estimated Mean | A calculation of a mean from grouped data. |

Estimated Probability | The estimate is based on practical or experimental results |

Estimating | A calculated approximation of a number, or answer |

Evaluate | Work out the answer. Means the same as work out, or calculate |

Even Numbers | Integers ending in 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 |

Event | In probability, this is an action that takes place that has an outcome (something happens, or does not happen) |

Exhaustive | For a set of events, all possible options have been considered (ie one of the events *must* happen) |

Expanding | Multiplying the terms inside a bracket by the term, or terms, outside the bracket. This removes the brackets from the expression. |

Expenditure | The amount of money being spent by an individual or company |

Experimental Probability | Probability based on results from experiments. See also Theoretical Probability. |

Exponential | A function that includes a base number raised to a power eg f(x) = n^x^ |

Exponential Decay | The fall in the value or amount of an item that follows an exponential (n^x^) value |

Exponential Growth | The rise in the value or amount of an item tht follows an exponetial (n^x^) value |

Expression | A set of numbers and letters which describes a situation, where the letters indicate unknown values. |

Exterior Angle | The amount of turn required from one line of a polygon onto th enext line of a polygon. |

Extrapolated | Estimating value that lies outside a known set of values |

Face | The surface of one side of an object. |

Factor | An integer that will divide into another integer without leaving a remainder |

Factor Theorem | If (x-c) is a factor of the polynomial f(x), then there will be no remainder when f(x) is divided by (x-c). |

Fair | Probabilty: the chance of something happening is not unduly influenced by something else |

Fibonacci Sequence | A sequence generated by creating a new term by adding the values of the previous two terms. |

Figures | Another name for digits |

First Difference | In quadratic sequences, the first difference is the difference between successive term values |

First Fit Rule | A rule that determines how items of different sizes are placed in a container. |

Foot | An imperial measurement of length. There are 12 inches in a foot. See Inch. |

Formula | A predefined method that allows calculation of an unknown variable, when other variables are known. |

Formulae | Plural of formula. |

Fraction | A number that is divided by another number, shown as a Numerator over a Denominator |

Fraction Part | The part of a Mixed Number that contains the fraction |

Frequency | Another word for how often something happens, or how often an item takes a specific value |

Frequency Density | Used on a histogram as the vertical measure. A histogram shows frequency by area. The Frequency Density is the frequency of the group divided by the width of the group |

Frequency Polygon | A graph that shows the frequency of an occurrence by interval or event. Points are plotted on the mid-point of the event. |

Frequency Table | A frequency table is a listing of data values with the number of times that value occurs |

Frequency Tree | A tree diagram that shows the frequency of items over several consecutive categories |

Frustum | A cone with a smaller cone removed from the top. See Cone. |

Fully Described | Transformations: stating all the infrmation needed to complete a translation. See Rotation, Reflection, Enlargement and Translation. |

Function | A step, or set of steps, that will perform work on a number or value. |

Gallon | An imperial measureemnt of capacity. There are 8 pints in a gallon. |

General Case | Used in arithmetic, algebraic and geometric proofs, a General Case is valid for all values (normally shown by using unknowns). |

General Term | Sequences: a General Term - sometimes shown as *nth term* is a formula used to calculate the value of a specific term |

Geometric Proof | Using geometry to prove a geometric definition using logical steps. |

Geometric Sequence | A geometric sequence involves a value that is raised to the power of the term. |

Giga- | Large number prefix: 1 x 10^{9} |

Given | The information provided can be assumed to be true. |

Gradient | The amount of slope, defined as amount up divided by amount along. |

Gram | A standard metric measure for weight. |

Greater Than | One value is greater than the other; the greater number is on the left of the > symbol |

Greater Than Or Equal To | One value is greater than or equal to the other; the greater/equal number is on the left of the ≥ symbol |

Grid Method | A method used to carry out a multiplication by breaking both numbers into component parts, multiplying induvudual, and adding the answers together. |

Gross Amount | A starting amount. Normally associated with a Net Amount, which is the value of what is left after other values have been applied. |

Gross Income | The amount it costs an organisation to pay an individual (not what an individual receives). See also Deductions and Net Amount. |

Grouped Data | Data that has been counted into defined ranges of values |

Grouped Frequency Table | A frequency table is a listing of data values, orgaised by ranges of values, with the number of times that a value in that range occurs |

Growth And Decay | Describes situations where teh size of a value is increasing (growth) or decreasing (decay) |

HCF | See Highest Common Factor |

Heptagon | A seven-sided 2D shape |

Hexagon | A six-sided 2D shape |

Hexagonal Prism | A hexagonal shape that is stretched into 3D. |

Highest Common Factor | The highest integer that will divide INTO two other integers. The HCF is always smaller than the two integers being examined. |

Histogram | Similar to a bar chart, but where the value is based on area rather than height (or width). |

Hours | An interval of time: there are 24 hours in a Day. |

Hypotenuse | The longest side of a right-angled triangle. |

Identity | An expression that has the same value as another expression, although written in a different form. |

Imperial | A standard set of measurements. |

Improper Fraction | A fraction where the Numerator is greater than the Denominator (Top-Heavy Fraction) (ignoring any signs) |

Inch | An imperial measurement representing length. Equats to about 2.54 cm. |

Income | The amount being received by an individual or an organisation |

Income Tax | A tax levied on pay, used to fund governments. |

Increment | The amount by which one value is increased to another value. |

Independent Event | The occurence of one event does not influence the probability of another following event happening |

Index | A small number that follows a variable and indicates the multiplying power eg square, cube root |

Indices | Plural of index: indicates how many instances of the number are multiplied together |

Inequality | An equation that results in a set of answers, all of which may be true for that equation. the equation is replaced by a greater than > or less than < sign. |

Inflation | The result of price increases against a base value, normally given as a percentage. |

Input | A number that will be used as a starting value for a function. |

Inspection | By looking, or deriving a result without any computation. |

Instantaneous Rate Of Change | The rate of change at that point in time. Discovered by drawing a tangent at that point on the curve. See Average Rate of Change. |

Integer | A whole number used to count objects; has no decimal or fraction part |

Integer Part | The whole number part of a Decimal or Fraction ie to the left of the Decimal point |

Inter-quartile Range | After a data has been set in order, the range between the lowest and highest quarter points of the data |

Intercept | Algebra: the *y-value where a graph cross @x@ = 0 |

Interest | An amount that increases or decreases an original amount by a percentage of the opriginal amount over a given time period. |

Interior Angle | The angle between two sides inside a polygon. |

Interpolated | Estimating a value that lies between known sets of values |

Intersect | Sets: where elements belong (and only belong) in both (or more) sets |

Intersection | In graphs, the value of *y* when the function crosses @x=0@ |

Inverse | An operation, when applied to an answer, will give the original value (an inverse acts like the opposite action) |

Inverse Function | The function that will return a value from a function back to the priginal value. An inverse function is shown as f^-1^(x). |

Inverse Proportion | If one proprtion is multiplied by a value, then the other proportion is multiplied by the inverse of that value. |

Irrational | An irrational number cannot be written as a fraction using integers |

Irregular Polygon | A 2D shape with three or more sides. Sides and Interior Angles may have different angles. |

Isosceles Triangle | A Triangle where two of the sides are the same length; and where two of the angles are the same size. |

Iteration | A repeated step in a calculation. Each repeated step will get you closer to the answer. |

Iterative | A process where the steps repeat, where each step increases the accuracy of the final answer. |

Key | For diagrams (eg Stem-and-leaf, or Pictograms), the definition of how the diagram is organised |

Kilo | A prefix to show that a standard measure is multipled by 1000 eg 1 kilometre = 1000 metres. This is also used as a large number prefix eg 1 x 10^3^. |

Kilometre | A metric measurement of length of 100 metres. See Metre. |

Kinematic | The study of movement. See Veocity and Acceleration. |

Kinematics | The study of movement in mathematics and physics |

Kite | Has two pairs of lines of equal length, with the lines within the pairs being adjacent. Diagonals cross at 90 degrees. |

LCM | See Lowest Common Multiple |

Laws Of Indices | Rules about multiplying and dividing the same base number when raised to powers of that number |

Leap Year | Every fourth year has an extra day (February 29th), to account for the fact that earth's orbit is a little more than 365 days. |

Length | How long something is, or the distance from one point to anothe rpoint. |

Less Than | One value is smaller than the other: the smaller number is on the left of the < sign |

Less Than Or Equal To | One value is smaller than or equal to the other: the smaller/equal number is on the left of the ≤ sign |

Liability | The value of something owed by an organisation to another organisation. |

Like Terms | A term in an expression that has the same letter and power as another term in the same expression. |

Limit | The accuracy of a tolerance. |

Limit Of Accuracy | By how much a measured value may be different from the true value. Normally given as + or - on the measurement. |

Line | A line is a path between two points |

Line Graph | A graph showing the frequency of an occurrence over time |

Line Of Best Fit | The drawing of a graph through a set of data so that the line is as close as possible to all data |

Line Of Symmetry | The line on an oject where a shape can be reflected upon itself. |

Line Segment | A defined portion of a line |

Linear | A line. In algebra, it means a function with no variables raised to a power of 2 or greater, and draws as a straight line on a graph. |

Linear Equation | An equation with one unknown term, which has not been raised to a power. |

Linear Function | An equation that does not have any power terms: will plot a straight line on a graph. |

Litre | A standard metric measure for capacity. |

Loci | Plural of Locus |

Locus | A line where all the points on the line are equally distant from somethng else (point, line, shape). |

Long Division | A division where the divisor consists of more than one digit |

Long Multiplication | A multiplication where the multiplier consists of more than one digit |

Loss | See Profit, but where the cost of buying items is greater than the cost of selling them. |

Lower Bound | The lowest value that a measurment may be, given a tolerance. |

Lower Quartile | After a set of data has been placed in order, the lowest quarter point of the data |

Lowest Common Multiple | The lowest multiple shared by two integers. An LCM is always greater than the two integers being compared |

Magnitude | The size of something |

Mapping | The process of taking inputs into a function and identifying them with the outputs of the function. |

Mass | The amount of matter in an object. See also Weight. |

Maxima | Plural of Maximum. Normally used to describe turning points on a graph. |

Maximum | The largest value. In graphs, it is a turning point where a rising graph turns to fall again. |

Mean | An average, based on the sum of a range of values divided by the number of values. |

Median | The middle value of a range of data, when that data has been placed in order |

Mega- | Large number prefix: 1 x 10^{6} |

Metre | A standard metric measure for length. |

Metric | A standard set of measurements. |

Metric unit | A measurement system for length, mass and capacity based on multiples of 10. |

Micro- | Small number prefix: 1 x 10^{-6} |

Midday | The middle of the day, between morning and afternoon. The time is 12pm (12-hour clock) or 1200 (24-hour clock). |

Midnight | The end of one day and the beginning of the next: 12am (12-hour clock) or 0000 (24-hour clock). |

Midpoint | A point on a line that is an equal distance from both ends. |

Mile | An imperial measurement of distance. There are 1760 yards in a mile. |

Milli | A prefix to show that a standard measure is divided by a 1000 eg 1 millimetre = 1 metre / 1000 |

Millilitre | A metric measurement of capacity. This is one thousandth of a litre. |

Millimetre | A metric measurement of length of one thousandth of a meter (and one tenth of a centimetre). See Metre and Centimetre. |

Minima | Plural of Minimum. normally used to describe turning points on a graph. |

Minimum | The smallest value. In graphs, it is a turning point where a falling graph turns to go up again. |

Minus | To take a value away from a number with another value |

Minutes | A short interval of time: there are 60 minutes in an Hour. OR; a small amount of turn: there are 60 minutes in a Degree. |

Mirror Line | Transformations: a given line across which a shape will be reflected to provide a mirror image. May be given as a line or as an equation. |

Mixed Number | A number consisting of an Integer part and a Fraction Part |

Modal Class | For grouped data, the group that has the larget number of items |

Mode | An average. The mode is the most frequent value. If two items have the same mode, then the data is bi-modal. |

Modelling | Use mathematics to simulate a situation. |

Months | A period covering a number of days: this period can be 28 to 31 days, depending on the month. there are 12 months in a Year. |

Moving Average | A mean value calculated on time-based data, calculated on an ongoing basis, and based on the last few periods. |

Multiplication | Increasing a number by itself a set number of times (the multiplier). (also Multiply, Times, Multiplier) |

Multiplicative Identity | A number multiplied by its inverse gives the multiplicative identity, which is 1. |

Multiplicative Inverse | See Reciprocal: a number multiplied by its multiplicative inverse = 1 |

Multiplier | Arithmetic: the number of times a number is added to itself. percentages: a decimal number used to increase or decrease an original value by a percentage. |

Mutually Exclusive | If any one event happens, then no other event in that set of events can occur |

Nano- | Small number prefix: 1 x 10^{-9} |

National Insurance | In the UK, a second tax on pay. |

Natural Numbers | All the numbers, starting at either 0 or 1 and counting upwards. Check which value it is starting at. |

Negative | A number less than zero |

Negative Correlation | Identifies a relationship when an increase in one set of values is identified with a decrease in another set of data |

Negative Number | A number with a value of less than zero |

Net Amount | The amount left after other amounts have been taken from a starting amount (which is the Gross Amount) |

Net Income | The amount left after all deductions have been made from a gross income. |

No Correlation | The change of values in one set of data has no effect on values in another set of data |

Nonagon | A nine-sided 2D shape |

Not Equal To | Two values being compared are different, represented by the ≠ sign |

Notation | A standard method of writing something down, so that it can be easily followed by others. |

Number Line | A line showing a range of numbers increasing or decreasing in value |

Numerator | The number on top of a fraction, the number that is being divided. |

Obtuse Angle | An angle over 90 degrees and up to (and not including) 180 degrees. |

Octagon | An eight-sided 2D shape |

Odd Numbers | Integers ending in 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9 |

One-way Table | A set of data with one measured value organised by eithe rrows or columns |

Operation | A function that changes what a number or variable is worth, such as Adding or Subtracting. |

Operator | Something that acts on a value to change it (see also Operation) |

Or | Logic: an item is in either list, or in both lists |

Order Of Rotational Symmetry | The number of times an object can be turned for Rotational Symmetry. The starting point counts as the first order. |

Origin | The starting value or position for a scale or measurement |

Original Amount | In percentages: the amount on which a percentage change is based |

Ounce | An imperial measurement of weight. |

Outcome | In probability, the result of an event |

Outlier | A data item that lies outside the normal range of data |

Output | A number that is obtained from applying a function to a number. |

PM | Afternoon, which lasts from Midday to midnight. PM is short for Post Meridiem (after midday) |

Parabola | A line that moves in a direction, turns, and moves back forming a V-shape with a curved point. |

Parallel | Lines or vectors are parallel if the all have the same gradient (on a graph) or direction (for vectors) |

Parallelogram Law For Vector Addition | If two vectors make up a parallelogram by considering them in either order then the resultant vector can be derived from the diagonal |

Pay | The amount received for carrying out some work. For some workers this is called a salary or renumeration. |

Pentagon | A five-sided 2D shape |

Percentage | Divides a number into hundredths so that it can be used as a ratio. Shown with the sign %. |

Perfect Square | An expression that consists only of a squared term. |

Perimeter | The boundary of a shape. |

Permutation | A particular combination of items selected from a list, or lists. |

Perpendicular | Two lines are prependicular when they are at right angles to each other |

Perpendicular Bisector | A line which cuts a line into two equal parts. The angle of the cutting line is at 90 degrees to the original line. |

Personal Allowance | In the UK, an amount on pay which is protected from being taxed. |

Pico- | Small Number prefix: 1 x 10^{-12} |

Pictogram | A method of displaying data shown as shapes. Each shape represents a number of items. The display of value is by counting (the number of shapes, or part of shapes). |

Pie Chart | A method of displaying data shown as a circle, with each sector defining the criteria. The display of value is by angle (at the centre). |

Pint | An imperial measurement of capacity. |

Place Value | The value of a digit based on its position in a number |

Plan | A top-down view of a shape. See also Elevation. |

Plane | A flat surface. |

Plus | Increasing the value of a number by the value of another |

Point | A point is a specific location on a diagram or on a graph. It may be shown as a dot, given as a measurement or as a set of co-ordinates. |

Polygon | A 2D shape with three or more straight sides. |

Population | All of the items or people that are being considered in an analysis, irrespective of any particular state they may be in. |

Position Vector | Vectors: a vector from a given position. |

Positive | A number greater than zero |

Positive Correlation | Identifies a relationship when an increase in one set of values is identified with an increase in another set of data |

Possibility Space | A diagram that shows all the possible combinations of events |

Pound | An imperial measurement of weight. A pound contains 16 ounces. |

Power | The index value of a number: see Square (power of 2), Cube (power of 3) of a number |

Pressure | A force applied to an area. Pressure = Force / Area. |

Prime Factor Tree | A method of breaking a number down into the Product Of Its Primes |

Prime Number | A number with two, and only two, factors. Primes below 20 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19. |

Principal | The original, starting, amount of money where interest is added or subtracted. |

Probability | The chance of something happening. May be expressed as a number or a percentage. See Probability Scale. |

Probability Scale | A number representing the chance of something happening. The scale runs from 0 (impossible) to 1 (certain). |

Probability Space | A listing, normally through a table, of all possible outcomes of an event |

Probability Tree Diagram | A tree diagram that shows the probability of outcomes over consecutive events |

Product | Another word for Multiply |

Product Of Its Primes | See product Of The Prime Factors |

Product Of The Prime Factors | The set of prime numbers which, when multiplied together, give the original number |

Product Rule | Number of permutations = n_{1}n_{2}n_{3}... |

Profit | The gain, in financial terms, taken from the price of selling less the cost of buying. |

Proper Fraction | A fraction where the denominator is larger than the numerator. |

Proper Subset | Sets: where the subset does not contain all the elements of the original set |

Property | A feature of an item. Items can have several properties. |

Proportion | Relates a part of an amount to the whole amount. See also Ratio. |

Protractor | A piece of equipment used to measure an amount of turn (in degrees). |

Pyramid | A 3D shape that has a base that is a polygon and which rises to a point |

Pythagoras` Theorem | The theorem states that *the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides*. Remember as @a^ + b^2 = c^2@ where @c@ is te longest side. |

Quadratic Function | An expression with a squared term, but no higher power. |

Quadratic Sequence | A sequence of numbers, where succesive values where a squared term is included in the difference |

Quadrilateral | A 2D shape with four straight sides. The angles add up to 360 degrees. |

Quartile | A division of a set of data into four parts. |

Radius | The distance from the centre of a Circle to its Circumference. |

Random | The chance of an event occurring is not influenced by any other event |

Range | The difference between th ehigest value and the lowest value in a Dataset |

Rate Of Change | How rate at which one thing changes when measured against another eg distance covered in time. |

Rate Of Pay | The amount received for a unit of time (hour, day, week, month or year). See Pay. |

Ratio | Determines how an amount is distributed by dividing into parts. The number of parts in each share is shown as part:part (with a colon). |

Rational | A rational number can be expressed as a fraction, with both numerator and denominator as integers |

Rational Numbers | All numbers that can be written as a whole number or as a fraction (integers as both numerator and denominator) |

Rationalising The Denominator | Removing a surd as the denominator in a fraction by multiplying both the numerator and the denominator by the denominator. |

Real Numbers | All numbers, including pi, √3 |

Real Roots | For a quadratic, the Discriminant is greater than or equal to zero. The solution can be expressed in Real numbers. |

Rearranging | Changing a formula or equation to make a solution easier: normally associated with changing the subject of a formula or equation. |

Reciprocal | The inverse of a number: the number is divided into 1 |

Reciprocal Bearing | The Bearing from the opposite direction of an original bearing. Differs from the original bearing by 180 degrees. |

Rectangle | A Quadrilateral where all th eangles are 90 degrees, and opposite sides are of equal lengths. |

Recurring Decimal | The decimal part of the number repeats itself forever: this may be a single number, or a group of numbers. |

Reduced | Make smaller in size. |

Reflection | Transformations: a shape as it would be seen in a mirror |

Reflex Angle | An angle over 180 degrees and up to (and not including) 360 degrees. |

Regular Polygon | A 2D shape with three or more sides. Each side has the same length and Interior Angles. |

Relative Frequency | After collection of data, it is the occurence of an event compared against all possible events |

Remainder | The amount left over after one integer has been divided by another |

Resultant Vector | The vector that represents the result of acting on other vectors. |

Reverse Percentage | Finding the Original Amount from the final amount and the percentage change |

Rhombus | Similar to a Parallelogram, but where all sides are of equal length (and opposite angles are equal). |

Right Angle | An angle of 90 degrees. Shown with a square (not an arc) on diagrams. |

Right Angled Triangle | A Triangle where one of the angles is 90 degrees. |

Roots | The point or points on a graph that cross the *x*-axis (*y*=0) |

Rotation | Turn a shape around a point: state direction of rotation, amount of turn and centre of rotation. |

Rotational Symmetry | Rotaional Symmetry is where an object can be turned so that the turned shape lies exactly upon th einturned shape. |

Rounding | Approximating a number making it easier to handle. Rounding takes place to multiples of 10. 5 or greater rounds up; less than 5 rounds down |

Row | On a table, a set of numbers reading along the table. See Column. |

Sample | A selection of a subset of data from a Population which should be representative of the entire population. |

Sample Space Diagram | A table showing all possible outcomes of an event. See Probability Space. |

Scalar | A value that is multiplying a term or a vector. |

Scale Factor | The amount by which an object is reduced or enlarged. This can be shown as a ratio or a multiple. Sometimes shortened to sf. |

Scalene Triangle | A Triangle where all sides are different lengths, and are angles are different sizes. |

Scales | On a graph: indication of the values along an axis. On a plan or map: the ratio in size between the real object and the drawing. |

Scatter Graph | A graph of points showing the relationship (see Correlation) between two different sets of data |

Second Difference | In quadratic sequences, the second difference is the difference between successive values in the first seuence. This difference will be a common differnce. |

Seconds | A brief interval of time: there are 60 seconds in a Minute. OR; a very small amount of turn/angle: there are 60 seconds in a Minute. |

Sector | An area of a circle bounded by a Circumference and two Radii. |

Segment | That part of a circle bounded by a Circumference and a Chord. |

Segment Angle | The angle made at the centre from the two points at each end of a segment (on the circumference) |

Selling Price | The price for which an item is sold. See also Cost Price. |

Semicircle | Half of a circle bounded by the Diameter and the Circumference. It is also a Segment. |

Sequence | A list of numbers (or shapes) that are linked by a rule |

Set | A defined list of numbers or values. In a Venn Diagram, the set will be shown as a circle enclosing the numbers or values |

Set Theory | The organisation of items into groups, which can then be analysed mathematically |

Short Division | A division where the divisor consists of only one digit |

Short Multiplication | A multiplication where the multiplier consists of only one digit |

Significant Figures | The digits at the start of a number. Leading zeroes are ignored. |

Similar | In geometry (or ratio), a shape that has the same angles but may have different lengths. |

Simple Fraction | A Fraction where both Numerator and Denominator are Integers |

Simple Interest | Where only the original amount is used to calculate interest for each time period. |

Simple Shape | A defined geometric shape eg circle, semicircle, rectangle. |

Simplest Form | A fraction where the Numerator and the Denominator have no common factors |

Simplifying | Changing a Fraction into its Simplest Form |

Sin | The relationship between the angle, the Hypotenuse and the Opposite side. Sin = Opposite / Hypotenuse. |

Sine | See Sin. |

Sketch | Normally of a graph: show the axis, axis crossing points and the equation or function of the graph. |

Solved | Finding the answer. Also: a solution is an answer. |

Sort | To place a list of numbers in order of value: either increasing or decreasing in value. |

Speed | The rate at which a distance is covered in a period of time. |

Sphere | A circular object with no edges and no vertices. |

Spread Of Data | Statistics: the amount by which values differ from the mean or median. |

Square | Number: to multiply a number by itself. Shown by a small 2 following, above, the number. Geometry: Similar to a rectangle, but where all the sides are the same length (and all angles are 90 degrees). |

Square Number | A number that is a square of another number. |

Square Root | What number, multiplied by itself, would give the number being square rooted? |

Square Sequence | A sequence generated by squaring the term value |

Square Term | A term (which may consist of a variable and a constant within a bracket) which is squared. |

Square-based Pyramid | A 3d shape where the base is a square and the faces lead to a point at the top. |

Stacked Bar Chart | A Bar Chart where individul bars are subdivided into related parts. |

Standard Deviation | A calculation which is a measure of how a set of values varies from the mean |

Standard Form | A number that consists of a decimal part between 1 and 10, and a power of 10 multiplier part |

Stationary Value | A point on a curve where the gradient is zero, and the curve then turns to continue in the same direction as before. |

Stem-and-leaf Diagram | An organised listing of values. Each value is split into a main part (the stem) and a single digit (the leaf). |

Stone | An imperial measurement of weight. A stone has 14 pounds. |

Straight Line | A straight line is the shortest distance between two point. A line has a length. |

Strata | A layer. In probability, it involves identifying layers based on criteria to allow selection within those layers. |

Stratified Sample | A survey of a part of a population. A Stratified Sample randomly selects by proportion based on a criteria within the population. |

Student Loan | In the UK, a tax on pay, used to repay the cost for an individual attending university. |

Subject | The variable in a formula or equation that will be found by solving the formula or equation: th esubject will be on its own on one side of the equals sign. |

Subset | Sets: a set where all the elements in the subset belong to a larger set |

Substitution | Replacing variables (letters) in an expression with a known number. |

Subtended Angle | The angle made when viewed from a given point |

Subtracting | Carrying out a Subtraction |

Subtraction | Reduce the value of one number by the value of another (also Subtract, Subtracting, Minus) |

Surd | An irrational number; normally includes a root; with the denominator as an integer |

Surface Area | The area bounded by edges on an object. |

Symmetry | Part of an object can be reflected exactly upon itself. |

Systematic | Completing a task in an ordered manner |

Take Away | Same as subtract |

Tally Chart | A method of data collection based on marking up a prepared sheet, set out in rows based on the data being analysed. |

Tan | The relationship between the angle, the Adjacent side and the Opposite side. Tan = Opposite / Adjacent. |

Tera- | Large number prefix: 1 x 10^{12} |

Term | Algebra: part of an expression, separated from other parts by arithmetic operators. Sequences: an individualnumber or shape in a sequence. |

Term-To-Term | A rule that describes how one number (or shape) in a sequence is linked to another number (or shape) in the same sequence. |

Terminating Decimal | A decimal number which ends after a number of digits |

Tetrahedron | A shape where each of the four faces is an equilateral triangle. |

Theoretical Probability | The probability of an outcome assuming that there is no bias in the execution of the event. |

Time Series | A set of data that is organised by time: a historic view of data |

Times | Another word for multiply ie 3 times 4 is three multiplied by 4 |

Tolerance | A description of how accurate a measurement may be taken.normally given as + or - a value. |

Ton | An imperial measurement of weight. There are 2240 pounds in a ton. |

Tonne | A metric measurement of weight. This is equal to 1000 kilograms. |

Top-heavy Fraction | A fraction where the Numerator is greater than the Denominator |

Transformation | In geometry: translate, reflect, rotate or enlarge an itm. |

Translation | Transformations: movement on a shpe from one position to another. See Vector. |

Trapezia | Plural of Trapezium. |

Trapezium | A Quadrlateral where two sides are parallel. |

Tree Diagram | See Frequency Tree, Probability Tree or Prime Factor Tree |

Trend | The data will be moving towards an outcome. |

Trial And Improvement | Estimating an answer; and progressively working towards a more accurate answer |

Triangle | A three-sided polygon. Interior angles of a triangle add up to 180 degrees. |

Triangle Law For Vector Addition | If two vectors are added together (by placing the second vector at the end of the first) the result is a vector linking the start of the first vector to the end of the second. |

Triangular Prism | A triangle shape that is stretched into 3D. |

Triangular Sequence | A sequence generated by creating a new term value by adding 1 to the previous term value. |

Trigonometric Ratio | The relationship in a triangle between the sides and the angles. The values are the Sine, Cosine and Tangent. |

Turning Point | The point on a non-linear graph where the gradient changes from positive to negative, or vice-versa. |

Two-way Table | A set of data with two measured values organised by both rows and columns |

Unbiased | Another word for fair |

Ungrouped Data | Data that has not been counted into groups or ranges |

Union | Sets; the list of elements that come from combining two (or more) sets |

Unique Factorization Theorem | Every integer greater than 1 is either a Prime Number or can be factorised uniquely by the Product of its Primes. |

Unit Pricing | The cost of one item. |

Unitary Method | For a proportion, set one side of the proportion equal to 1. This allows different prportions to be compared. See Best Buys. |

Universal Set | The set that contains all possible elements that describe a situation |

Unknown | In algebra, it is a value that is not known and is normally represented by a single letter. |

Unlike Terms | Either the letter (or letters) or the power is different between two terms; they cannot be added or subtracted. |

Upper Bound | The highest value a measurement may be, given a tolerance. |

Upper Quartile | After a set of data has been placed in order, the highest quarter point of the data |

VAT | Another name for Value Added Tax |

Value Added Tax | Sales tax, added at the point of sale. In he UK and the EU, sales normally include VAT |

Variable | A letter within an expression: the variable represents a number. |

Vector | A vector is a measure that has both a Magnitude (size) and direction. |

Velocity | The amount of distance covered in a unit of time. Note that velocity has a direction, and is a vector. |

Venn Diagram | A diagram used to compare the members, or contents, of two data sets. |

Vertical Line Chart | A graph that displays ungrouped discrete data using the height of the vertical line to indicate frequency |

Vertically Opposite Angles | Geometry: when two lines cross, the opposite angles are always equal |

Vertices | Plural of Vertex |

Volume | The capacity of a 3d shape. |

Volume Ratio | A volume ratio increases (or decreases) by the cube of the linear ratio. |

Vulgar Fraction | A Fraction where both Numerator and Denominator are Integers (see Simple Fraction) |

Week | A period of 7 days. |

Weight | The amount of mass in an object where a force is being applied (eg gravity). See Mass. |

Whole Number | Another name for an Integer. |

Work Out | Complete a calculation to obtain an answer |

X-axis | On a graph, a horizontal line showing increases in the value of the x-coordinate. |

Y-axis | On a graph, a vertical line showing increases in the value of the y-coordinate. |

Yard | An imperial measurement of length. There are 3 yards in a foot. See Foot and Inches. |

Year | The time taken by the earth to complete one orbit around the sun, but see Leap Year. |

The wtMaths App is available for the iPhone and iPad on the App Store and covers Maths for GCSE (Higher and Foundation). The app is loaded with exam-style questions: in-app purchases are required to unlock all of the questions.