WTMaths logo


dpAbbreviation for Decimal Places eg 23.554 (3dp) means that the number 23.554 is accutrate to three decimal places
dy/dxThe amount of change in y divided by the amount of change in x. See Differentiation.
f(x)A function that maps one number onto another.
f`(x)A differentiated function. See Differentiation.
sfShort for Significant Figures
%Sign for a percentage.
( )Brackets are used to control the order of operations: calculations take place inside the brackets first. (3 + 4) x 2 = 14
...Sets: it means that a sequence continues. eg Even Numbers = { 2, 4, 6, 8, ...}
3dShort for three-dimensional. A three-dimensional object has length, width and height
:Sets: read the symbol as `such that`
<Sign for Less Than. 6 < 4
=Sign for Equal To. 4 = 2 x 2
>Sign for Greater Than. 5 > 7
^c^Sets: Complement. All the values that are not in a given set.
n(A)Sets: the number of elements in a set. A={1, 3, 5}. n(A) = 3
nth termSequences: another name for a Gernal Term. The nth Term defines the formula that will give the value for that term.
s = d/tSpeed = Distance / Time
{ }Sets: Elements contained between these brackets belong to a set. Set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
¦Sets: read the symbol as `such that`
±Plus or minus. eg 5±2 = 3 or 7
ºSign for degrees (in an angle). eg 36º is 36 degrees
εSets: Universal Set. All the values under consideration. eg for 1 die, ε = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Sometimes written as U.
μSymbol for micro (= x 10^-6^
πSymbol for pi (circles). Normally use π=3.14, or use the π button the calculator
Sets: the set of all Natural Numbers. In some instances this set starts at 0; in other instances with 1.
Sets: the set of all Real numbers
Sets: the set of Rational Numbers
Sets: the set of all Integer numbers
Sets: and empty set. eg A = { }
Sets; an Element belongs to a set. 3 ∈{odd numbers}
Sets; an Element does not belong to a set. 3 ∉ {even numbers]
Sign for a square root. eg 2 = √4
The cube root of a number. eg 3 = ∛27
Symbol for Infinity
Sign for an angle
Symbol for parallel to, or indicating parallel lines
Sets: Intersection of two sets. eg {1, 2, 3,} ∩ {3, 4, 5} = {3}
Sign for approximately equal to. eg 98 ≈ 100
Sign for Not Equal To. eg 3 ≠ 4
Identity: the expressions on either side of the sign are equivalent
Sign for Less Than or Equal To. eg 5 ≤ 3 + 4
Sign for Greater Than or Equal To. eg 4 ≥ 2 + 2
Sets: the first set is a Proper Subset of the second set. eg {1, 2, 4} ⊂ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Sets: not a Proper Subset
Sets: is a subset of. if A={1,2,3} and B={1,2,3} then it could be said that B⊆A
Sets: Union of two sets. eg {1, 2, 3} ⋃ {4, 5} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,}
AMMorning, which lasts from midnight to midday. AM is short for Ante Meridiem (before midday).
AccelerationThe rate at which a speed, or velocity, is changing. If negative, then the speed is slowing down (decelleration).
AccuracyThe exactness of a measurement and by how much it may be different from a true value
Acute (angle)An angle between 0 degrees and up to (but not including) 90 degrees.
AddingSee addition
AdditionIncreasing the value of one number by the value of another (also add, adding)
AlgorithmA sequence of logical steps, which can be repeated for other values
AlgorithmA sequence of pre-defined steps that can be repeated.
Alternate AngleOn a line crossing a set of parallel lines angles that lie on opposite sides of the crossing line on each parallel line.
Alternate SegmentCircle Theorem. The angle between a tangent and a chord is equal to the angle on the circumference of the alternate (other side) segment.
AndLogic: an item is in both lists
AngleAn angle is the measurement of the turn between two intersecting lines. Angles are measured in degrees.
Angle BisectorA line that cuts an angle into two equal parts. See Bisector.
AnticlockwiseA circular movement going down on the left side of a point and up on the right side of a point.
ApproximateAn estimated value that is close to a more accurate value; usually carried out to provide a check on an answer.
ArcPart of the Circumference of a Circle.
AreaAn area is a surface defined by a Perimeter.
Area RatioAn area ratio increases (or decreases by the square of the linear ratio.
Arithmetic SequenceA sequence of numbers, where the difference between each number in the sequence is the same.
AscendingDescribes the order of numbers, where numbers increase in value
AssetThe value of something that is owned by an organisation which can be changed for cash.
AsymptoteA line on a graph that the graph tends towards, but never actually touches.
Average Rate Of ChangeThe rate of change between two points on a curve (equivalent to a chord between two points). See Instantaneous Rate of Change.
Average SpeedThe distance divided by time between two points, irrespective of whether the speed was constant.
AxesGraph: a line along which values can be measured. Geometry: a line around which an object can be turned. Singular - axis.
Axis Of SymmetryFor a quadratic , the Axis of Symmetry lies halfway between the two roots.
BalanceThe amount left after comparing two opposite items eg Assets and Liabilities, or Income and Expenditure,
Bar ChartA method of displaying data showing the data as bars up (or along) organised by the criteria being analyzed. The display of value is by height (or width).
BaseA base number is a number that is being raised to a given power
BearingAn amount of turn. Bearings are always measured clockwise from Noprth, and always have three digits eg 062 degrees.
Best BuysComparison of two items to see which is better value for money. See Unitary Method.
BiasProbability: the chance of something happening is influenced eg a weighted die (dice)
BidmasOrder of operations: Brackets; Indices; Division; Multiplication; Addition
BimodalIn statistics, where a set of data has two modes. See Mode.
Bin PackingThe placing of items in a container
BinomialAn expression that contains two terms, such as @(ax + n)@, where @a@ and @n@ are numbers.
BisectorA line that divides an angle (or other drawn item) equally into two.
BodmasOrder of operations: Brackets; Order; Division; Multiplication; Addition
Box PlotA depiction of data showing lowest and highest values, upper and lower quartiles, and the median.
Box methodA method for carring out multiplication (also Grid Method)
Box-and-whisker DiagramSee Box Plot.
BracketsBrackets (always shown in pairs, and may be shaped as (), [] or {}) are used to control the order of operation (see BIDMAS)
BudgetA table that is used to balance income and expenditure over a number of periods.
CalculateWork out the answer
CancellingReducing the value of both the numerator and denominator of a fraction by dividing them both by an equal amount. The value of the fraction remains the same.
CapacityThe amount of material or fluid that a container can hold.
Capture : RecaptureA sampling process that involves randomly selecting items and marking them; then resampling to identify items selected twice
CensusA survey of all people in a population. See also Sample.
CentiA prefix to show that a standard measure is divided by 100 eg 1 centimetre = 1 metre / 100.
CentimetreA metric measurement of length of one hundredth of a metre. See Metre.
CentreA fixed point from which measurement are taken.
Centre Of EnlargementThe base point used to scale up (or down) the size of a shape.
Centre Of RotationGeometry: the point around which a shape is being rotated.
CertainIn probability, an event is bound to happen (on the probability scale, it has a value of 1)
ChordA line drawn from a point on a curve (or circumference) to another point on the same curve (or circumference).
ChunkingA method for carrying out a division. Long Division is a preferred method.
CircleA 2D shape where every point on the line is the same distance from a fixed point.
CircumferenceThe Perimeter of a circle
ClassStatistics: grouping of data into defined ranges of values
Class IntervalThe value of the range between the highest and lowest boundaries of the class
Class WidthSee Class Interval
ClockwiseA circular movement going up on the left side of a point and down on the right side of a point.
CoefficientThe number at the start of an algebraic term.
CollinearPoints are collinear if they are all on the same line, or vector.
ColumnOn a table, a set of numbers reading down the table. See Row.
Column VectorA method of writing vectors. The vector values are written within brackets with the *x* value written above the *y* value)
Common DenominatorWhen adding or subtracting fractions, then denominators must be the same, or common to both.
Common DifferenceThe value between consecutive numbers in an Arithmetic Sequence.
Common FractionA Fraction where both Numerator and Denominator are Integers (see Simple Fraction)
CommutativeAn operation on two numbers, where the order of the numbers is not important to the answer
Comparitive Bar ChartAnother name for a Dual Bar Chart.
CompassesA device for drawing circles, consisting of a sharp point and a pen or pencil.
ComplementA set of Elements that do not belong to a set. The set and its complement is the Universal Set.
Completing The SquareAdding a constant term To arrange a quadratic expression to consist of a squared expression and a constant.
Complex RootsFor a quadratic, the solutions cannot be expressed in real numbers (on a graph, does not cross the x-axis). Discriminant < 0.
Composite FunctionTwo or more functions where the output from one function is used as the input to the next. Written as (for example) gf(x), where f(x) is applied to x, and g(x) is applied to the output from f(x).
Composite ShapeA shape that consists of more than one simple shape.
Compound InterestWhere the end amount for a period for which interest is being calculated is used as the start amount for the next period.
Compound MeasureA measurement that includes more than one type of unit.
Compound ShapeA shape made up with two or more simple shapes.
Compound UnitsA measurment that consists of more than one type of unit eg Density is measued using mass and volume
Conditional ProbabiltyThe probability of an event occurring given that another event, which can influence the second event, has occurred.
ConeA shape that starts as a circle and uniformily moves to a point.
CongruentGeometry: when a shape can be moved, rotated or reflected exactly onto another shape, then the shapes are congruent
ConstantA fixed value.
Constant Of ProportionalityA constant, @k@, which is used to change a proportional relationship to an equation.
ContinuousA measurement from a scale or rule, and which can deliver different degrees of accuracy eg length or height
Continuous DataData that can take any value, normally based on measurement
CoordinatesValues which give the position on a graph. Normally given as (x, y) where x is the value along and y is the value up.
CorrelationThe relationship between two sets of data
Corresponding AngleWhere a straight line crosses two parallel lines, corresponding angles are the angles in the same relative position on each parallel line.
CosThe relationship between the angle, the Hypotenuse and teh Adjacent Side. Cos = Adjacent / Hypotenuse.
CosineTrigonemtry: See Cos.
Cost PriceThe price for which an item is bought.
CubeCubing is multiplying three instances of the number together.
Cube RootWhat number, when three versions of it are multiplied together, gives the number being cube rooted?
Cube SequenceA sequence generated by cubing the term value
CuboidA rectangular 3D shape: all the vertices are right angles.
Cumulative FrequencyThe running total of frequencies.
Cyclic QuadrilateralA four-sided shape where each corner of the shape lies on th ecircumference of a circle.
CylinderA prism where each end consists of a circle. A cylinder has no vertices.
DataA set of information organised in a common way
Data CollectionThe process of gathering information, organised by criteria defined before collection begins.
DatasetA set of data organised for processing
DaysA period of time involving night, morning, afternoon, evening and night again. There are 365 days in a year, but see Leap Year.
DecagonA ten-sided 2D shape
Deci-Small number prefix: 1 x 10-1
DecimalA number that contains a decimal point. The number consist of an integer part and a decimal part
Decimal PartThat part of a number that is less than 1, ie to the right of the decimal point
Decimal PlacesThe number of digits to the right the decimal point
Decimal PointThis signifies the split between the integer part and the decimal part of a number
DeductionsItems removed from Gross Pay, such as Income Tax, National Insurance, Pensions and Student Loans.
DegreesA measurement of an amount of turn. There are 360 degrees in a whole turn.
DenominatorThe number on the bottom of a fraction. The number that is doing the dividing (divisor)
DensityThe amount of mass for a given volume. Density = Mass / Volume.
Dependent EventIn probability, an event that relies on an outcome from a previous event
DepreciationRecognises that the value of an item falls as it gets older, normally given as percentage. See also Asset.
DescendingDescribes the order of numbers, where numbers decrease in value.
DiameterA chord drawn across a circle through the centre. The diameter is twice the radius.
DifferenceThis will often mean to carry out a subtraction
Difference Of Two SquaresAn expression of the form @x^2 - b@ which can be factorised to @(x + a)(x - a), where +a and -a are roots of b.
DifferentiationA process that derives the rate of change, or gradient, of a function.
DigitsSingle numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) that may be part of a larger number
Direct ProportionOne amount is a multiple of another amount. If a graph is draw of the relationship, the graph will go through the origin.
Direction Of RotationThe direction - clockwise or anticlockwise - of a turn around a Centre of Rotation.
Discrete DataSomething that can be counted; such as cars, or students.
DiscriminantIn a quadratic, that portion in the solution for a quadratic that is under the square root, @b^2-4ac@
Distance ChartA grid that shows distances between two locations. Often two pieces of data are represented eg miles/kilometres or distance/travel time.
Distinct RootsIn a quadratic, the two solutions have different values (on a graph, crosses the x-axis twice). Discriminant > 0
DivisionA calculation to determine how many instances of one number will go into another
DivisorA number that is dividing into another number
Dual Bar ChartA Bar Chart which shows two distinct sets of data, side by side, for comparison. See Bar Chart.
EdgeOn a three dimensional object, th eintersection between two planes. See Vertex and Plane.
ElementSets: individual items that make up a set
ElevationA side view of a shape. Often there are two elevations: a side elevation and a front elevation. See also Plan.
EllipsesA symbol ... (three dots) that means carry on a sequence of numbers
EmpiricalWorking out information by experimentation.
Empty SetSets: a set that contains no elements. eg A={}, A is an empty set
EnlargedMade bigger in size.
EnlargementTransformation: make a shape larger or smaller by a scale factor, and based on a point of enlargement.
Equal RootsFor a quadratic, the two roots are equal in value (on a graph, just touches the x-axis). Discriminant = 0
Equal ToTwo values are the same, represented by the = sign
EquationSetting up a variable and numbers so that the variable can be solved. Equations have an equals sign.
Equilateral TriangleA Triangle where all sides are te same length. All angles are the same (60 degrees).
Equivalent FractionA fraction that has the same value as another fraction, although the numerators and denominators will be different
Error IntervalThe amount by which a measurement may be inaccurate.
EstimateAn approximate, or rough, calculation based on less accurate or simplified numbers
Estimated MeanA calculation of a mean from grouped data.
Estimated ProbabilityThe estimate is based on practical or experimental results
EstimatingA calculated approximation of a number, or answer
EvaluateWork out the answer. Means the same as work out, or calculate
Even NumbersIntegers ending in 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8
EventIn probability, this is an action that takes place that has an outcome (something happens, or does not happen)
ExhaustiveFor a set of events, all possible options have been considered (ie one of the events *must* happen)
ExpandingMultiplying the terms inside a bracket by the term, or terms, outside the bracket. This removes the brackets from the expression.
ExpenditureThe amount of money being spent by an individual or company
Experimental ProbabilityProbability based on results from experiments. See also Theoretical Probability.
ExponentialA function that includes a base number raised to a power eg f(x) = n^x^
Exponential DecayThe fall in the value or amount of an item that follows an exponential (n^x^) value
Exponential GrowthThe rise in the value or amount of an item tht follows an exponetial (n^x^) value
ExpressionA set of numbers and letters which describes a situation, where the letters indicate unknown values.
Exterior AngleThe amount of turn required from one line of a polygon onto th enext line of a polygon.
ExtrapolatedEstimating value that lies outside a known set of values
FaceThe surface of one side of an object.
FactorAn integer that will divide into another integer without leaving a remainder
Factor TheoremIf (x-c) is a factor of the polynomial f(x), then there will be no remainder when f(x) is divided by (x-c).
FairProbabilty: the chance of something happening is not unduly influenced by something else
Fibonacci SequenceA sequence generated by creating a new term by adding the values of the previous two terms.
FiguresAnother name for digits
First DifferenceIn quadratic sequences, the first difference is the difference between successive term values
First Fit RuleA rule that determines how items of different sizes are placed in a container.
FootAn imperial measurement of length. There are 12 inches in a foot. See Inch.
FormulaA predefined method that allows calculation of an unknown variable, when other variables are known.
FormulaePlural of formula.
FractionA number that is divided by another number, shown as a Numerator over a Denominator
Fraction PartThe part of a Mixed Number that contains the fraction
FrequencyAnother word for how often something happens, or how often an item takes a specific value
Frequency DensityUsed on a histogram as the vertical measure. A histogram shows frequency by area. The Frequency Density is the frequency of the group divided by the width of the group
Frequency PolygonA graph that shows the frequency of an occurrence by interval or event. Points are plotted on the mid-point of the event.
Frequency TableA frequency table is a listing of data values with the number of times that value occurs
Frequency TreeA tree diagram that shows the frequency of items over several consecutive categories
FrustumA cone with a smaller cone removed from the top. See Cone.
Fully DescribedTransformations: stating all the infrmation needed to complete a translation. See Rotation, Reflection, Enlargement and Translation.
FunctionA step, or set of steps, that will perform work on a number or value.
GallonAn imperial measureemnt of capacity. There are 8 pints in a gallon.
General CaseUsed in arithmetic, algebraic and geometric proofs, a General Case is valid for all values (normally shown by using unknowns).
General TermSequences: a General Term - sometimes shown as *nth term* is a formula used to calculate the value of a specific term
Geometric ProofUsing geometry to prove a geometric definition using logical steps.
Geometric SequenceA geometric sequence involves a value that is raised to the power of the term.
Giga-Large number prefix: 1 x 109
GivenThe information provided can be assumed to be true.
GradientThe amount of slope, defined as amount up divided by amount along.
GramA standard metric measure for weight.
Greater ThanOne value is greater than the other; the greater number is on the left of the > symbol
Greater Than Or Equal ToOne value is greater than or equal to the other; the greater/equal number is on the left of the ≥ symbol
Grid MethodA method used to carry out a multiplication by breaking both numbers into component parts, multiplying induvudual, and adding the answers together.
Gross AmountA starting amount. Normally associated with a Net Amount, which is the value of what is left after other values have been applied.
Gross IncomeThe amount it costs an organisation to pay an individual (not what an individual receives). See also Deductions and Net Amount.
Grouped DataData that has been counted into defined ranges of values
Grouped Frequency TableA frequency table is a listing of data values, orgaised by ranges of values, with the number of times that a value in that range occurs
Growth And DecayDescribes situations where teh size of a value is increasing (growth) or decreasing (decay)
HCFSee Highest Common Factor
HeptagonA seven-sided 2D shape
HexagonA six-sided 2D shape
Hexagonal PrismA hexagonal shape that is stretched into 3D.
Highest Common FactorThe highest integer that will divide INTO two other integers. The HCF is always smaller than the two integers being examined.
HistogramSimilar to a bar chart, but where the value is based on area rather than height (or width).
HoursAn interval of time: there are 24 hours in a Day.
HypotenuseThe longest side of a right-angled triangle.
IdentityAn expression that has the same value as another expression, although written in a different form.
ImperialA standard set of measurements.
Improper FractionA fraction where the Numerator is greater than the Denominator (Top-Heavy Fraction) (ignoring any signs)
InchAn imperial measurement representing length. Equats to about 2.54 cm.
IncomeThe amount being received by an individual or an organisation
Income TaxA tax levied on pay, used to fund governments.
IncrementThe amount by which one value is increased to another value.
Independent EventThe occurence of one event does not influence the probability of another following event happening
IndexA small number that follows a variable and indicates the multiplying power eg square, cube root
IndicesPlural of index: indicates how many instances of the number are multiplied together
InequalityAn equation that results in a set of answers, all of which may be true for that equation. the equation is replaced by a greater than > or less than < sign.
InflationThe result of price increases against a base value, normally given as a percentage.
InputA number that will be used as a starting value for a function.
InspectionBy looking, or deriving a result without any computation.
Instantaneous Rate Of ChangeThe rate of change at that point in time. Discovered by drawing a tangent at that point on the curve. See Average Rate of Change.
IntegerA whole number used to count objects; has no decimal or fraction part
Integer PartThe whole number part of a Decimal or Fraction ie to the left of the Decimal point
Inter-quartile RangeAfter a data has been set in order, the range between the lowest and highest quarter points of the data
InterceptAlgebra: the *y-value where a graph cross @x@ = 0
InterestAn amount that increases or decreases an original amount by a percentage of the opriginal amount over a given time period.
Interior AngleThe angle between two sides inside a polygon.
InterpolatedEstimating a value that lies between known sets of values
IntersectSets: where elements belong (and only belong) in both (or more) sets
IntersectionIn graphs, the value of *y* when the function crosses @x=0@
InverseAn operation, when applied to an answer, will give the original value (an inverse acts like the opposite action)
Inverse FunctionThe function that will return a value from a function back to the priginal value. An inverse function is shown as f^-1^(x).
Inverse ProportionIf one proprtion is multiplied by a value, then the other proportion is multiplied by the inverse of that value.
IrrationalAn irrational number cannot be written as a fraction using integers
Irregular PolygonA 2D shape with three or more sides. Sides and Interior Angles may have different angles.
Isosceles TriangleA Triangle where two of the sides are the same length; and where two of the angles are the same size.
IterationA repeated step in a calculation. Each repeated step will get you closer to the answer.
IterativeA process where the steps repeat, where each step increases the accuracy of the final answer.
KeyFor diagrams (eg Stem-and-leaf, or Pictograms), the definition of how the diagram is organised
KiloA prefix to show that a standard measure is multipled by 1000 eg 1 kilometre = 1000 metres. This is also used as a large number prefix eg 1 x 10^3^.
KilometreA metric measurement of length of 100 metres. See Metre.
KinematicThe study of movement. See Veocity and Acceleration.
KinematicsThe study of movement in mathematics and physics
KiteHas two pairs of lines of equal length, with the lines within the pairs being adjacent. Diagonals cross at 90 degrees.
LCMSee Lowest Common Multiple
Laws Of IndicesRules about multiplying and dividing the same base number when raised to powers of that number
Leap YearEvery fourth year has an extra day (February 29th), to account for the fact that earth's orbit is a little more than 365 days.
LengthHow long something is, or the distance from one point to anothe rpoint.
Less ThanOne value is smaller than the other: the smaller number is on the left of the < sign
Less Than Or Equal ToOne value is smaller than or equal to the other: the smaller/equal number is on the left of the ≤ sign
LiabilityThe value of something owed by an organisation to another organisation.
Like TermsA term in an expression that has the same letter and power as another term in the same expression.
LimitThe accuracy of a tolerance.
Limit Of AccuracyBy how much a measured value may be different from the true value. Normally given as + or - on the measurement.
LineA line is a path between two points
Line GraphA graph showing the frequency of an occurrence over time
Line Of Best FitThe drawing of a graph through a set of data so that the line is as close as possible to all data
Line Of SymmetryThe line on an oject where a shape can be reflected upon itself.
Line SegmentA defined portion of a line
LinearA line. In algebra, it means a function with no variables raised to a power of 2 or greater, and draws as a straight line on a graph.
Linear EquationAn equation with one unknown term, which has not been raised to a power.
Linear FunctionAn equation that does not have any power terms: will plot a straight line on a graph.
LitreA standard metric measure for capacity.
LociPlural of Locus
LocusA line where all the points on the line are equally distant from somethng else (point, line, shape).
Long DivisionA division where the divisor consists of more than one digit
Long MultiplicationA multiplication where the multiplier consists of more than one digit
LossSee Profit, but where the cost of buying items is greater than the cost of selling them.
Lower BoundThe lowest value that a measurment may be, given a tolerance.
Lower QuartileAfter a set of data has been placed in order, the lowest quarter point of the data
Lowest Common MultipleThe lowest multiple shared by two integers. An LCM is always greater than the two integers being compared
MagnitudeThe size of something
MappingThe process of taking inputs into a function and identifying them with the outputs of the function.
MassThe amount of matter in an object. See also Weight.
MaximaPlural of Maximum. Normally used to describe turning points on a graph.
MaximumThe largest value. In graphs, it is a turning point where a rising graph turns to fall again.
MeanAn average, based on the sum of a range of values divided by the number of values.
MedianThe middle value of a range of data, when that data has been placed in order
Mega-Large number prefix: 1 x 106
MetreA standard metric measure for length.
MetricA standard set of measurements.
Metric unitA measurement system for length, mass and capacity based on multiples of 10.
Micro-Small number prefix: 1 x 10-6
MiddayThe middle of the day, between morning and afternoon. The time is 12pm (12-hour clock) or 1200 (24-hour clock).
MidnightThe end of one day and the beginning of the next: 12am (12-hour clock) or 0000 (24-hour clock).
MidpointA point on a line that is an equal distance from both ends.
MileAn imperial measurement of distance. There are 1760 yards in a mile.
MilliA prefix to show that a standard measure is divided by a 1000 eg 1 millimetre = 1 metre / 1000
MillilitreA metric measurement of capacity. This is one thousandth of a litre.
MillimetreA metric measurement of length of one thousandth of a meter (and one tenth of a centimetre). See Metre and Centimetre.
MinimaPlural of Minimum. normally used to describe turning points on a graph.
MinimumThe smallest value. In graphs, it is a turning point where a falling graph turns to go up again.
MinusTo take a value away from a number with another value
MinutesA short interval of time: there are 60 minutes in an Hour. OR; a small amount of turn: there are 60 minutes in a Degree.
Mirror LineTransformations: a given line across which a shape will be reflected to provide a mirror image. May be given as a line or as an equation.
Mixed NumberA number consisting of an Integer part and a Fraction Part
Modal ClassFor grouped data, the group that has the larget number of items
ModeAn average. The mode is the most frequent value. If two items have the same mode, then the data is bi-modal.
ModellingUse mathematics to simulate a situation.
MonthsA period covering a number of days: this period can be 28 to 31 days, depending on the month. there are 12 months in a Year.
Moving AverageA mean value calculated on time-based data, calculated on an ongoing basis, and based on the last few periods.
MultiplicationIncreasing a number by itself a set number of times (the multiplier). (also Multiply, Times, Multiplier)
Multiplicative IdentityA number multiplied by its inverse gives the multiplicative identity, which is 1.
Multiplicative InverseSee Reciprocal: a number multiplied by its multiplicative inverse = 1
MultiplierArithmetic: the number of times a number is added to itself. percentages: a decimal number used to increase or decrease an original value by a percentage.
Mutually ExclusiveIf any one event happens, then no other event in that set of events can occur
Nano-Small number prefix: 1 x 10-9
National InsuranceIn the UK, a second tax on pay.
Natural NumbersAll the numbers, starting at either 0 or 1 and counting upwards. Check which value it is starting at.
NegativeA number less than zero
Negative CorrelationIdentifies a relationship when an increase in one set of values is identified with a decrease in another set of data
Negative NumberA number with a value of less than zero
Net AmountThe amount left after other amounts have been taken from a starting amount (which is the Gross Amount)
Net IncomeThe amount left after all deductions have been made from a gross income.
No CorrelationThe change of values in one set of data has no effect on values in another set of data
NonagonA nine-sided 2D shape
Not Equal ToTwo values being compared are different, represented by the ≠ sign
NotationA standard method of writing something down, so that it can be easily followed by others.
Number LineA line showing a range of numbers increasing or decreasing in value
NumeratorThe number on top of a fraction, the number that is being divided.
Obtuse AngleAn angle over 90 degrees and up to (and not including) 180 degrees.
OctagonAn eight-sided 2D shape
Odd NumbersIntegers ending in 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9
One-way TableA set of data with one measured value organised by eithe rrows or columns
OperationA function that changes what a number or variable is worth, such as Adding or Subtracting.
OperatorSomething that acts on a value to change it (see also Operation)
OrLogic: an item is in either list, or in both lists
Order Of Rotational SymmetryThe number of times an object can be turned for Rotational Symmetry. The starting point counts as the first order.
OriginThe starting value or position for a scale or measurement
Original AmountIn percentages: the amount on which a percentage change is based
OunceAn imperial measurement of weight.
OutcomeIn probability, the result of an event
OutlierA data item that lies outside the normal range of data
OutputA number that is obtained from applying a function to a number.
PMAfternoon, which lasts from Midday to midnight. PM is short for Post Meridiem (after midday)
ParabolaA line that moves in a direction, turns, and moves back forming a V-shape with a curved point.
ParallelLines or vectors are parallel if the all have the same gradient (on a graph) or direction (for vectors)
Parallelogram Law For Vector AdditionIf two vectors make up a parallelogram by considering them in either order then the resultant vector can be derived from the diagonal
PayThe amount received for carrying out some work. For some workers this is called a salary or renumeration.
PentagonA five-sided 2D shape
PercentageDivides a number into hundredths so that it can be used as a ratio. Shown with the sign %.
Perfect SquareAn expression that consists only of a squared term.
PerimeterThe boundary of a shape.
PermutationA particular combination of items selected from a list, or lists.
PerpendicularTwo lines are prependicular when they are at right angles to each other
Perpendicular BisectorA line which cuts a line into two equal parts. The angle of the cutting line is at 90 degrees to the original line.
Personal AllowanceIn the UK, an amount on pay which is protected from being taxed.
Pico-Small Number prefix: 1 x 10-12
PictogramA method of displaying data shown as shapes. Each shape represents a number of items. The display of value is by counting (the number of shapes, or part of shapes).
Pie ChartA method of displaying data shown as a circle, with each sector defining the criteria. The display of value is by angle (at the centre).
PintAn imperial measurement of capacity.
Place ValueThe value of a digit based on its position in a number
PlanA top-down view of a shape. See also Elevation.
PlaneA flat surface.
PlusIncreasing the value of a number by the value of another
PointA point is a specific location on a diagram or on a graph. It may be shown as a dot, given as a measurement or as a set of co-ordinates.
PolygonA 2D shape with three or more straight sides.
PopulationAll of the items or people that are being considered in an analysis, irrespective of any particular state they may be in.
Position VectorVectors: a vector from a given position.
PositiveA number greater than zero
Positive CorrelationIdentifies a relationship when an increase in one set of values is identified with an increase in another set of data
Possibility SpaceA diagram that shows all the possible combinations of events
PoundAn imperial measurement of weight. A pound contains 16 ounces.
PowerThe index value of a number: see Square (power of 2), Cube (power of 3) of a number
PressureA force applied to an area. Pressure = Force / Area.
Prime Factor TreeA method of breaking a number down into the Product Of Its Primes
Prime NumberA number with two, and only two, factors. Primes below 20 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19.
PrincipalThe original, starting, amount of money where interest is added or subtracted.
ProbabilityThe chance of something happening. May be expressed as a number or a percentage. See Probability Scale.
Probability ScaleA number representing the chance of something happening. The scale runs from 0 (impossible) to 1 (certain).
Probability SpaceA listing, normally through a table, of all possible outcomes of an event
Probability Tree DiagramA tree diagram that shows the probability of outcomes over consecutive events
ProductAnother word for Multiply
Product Of Its PrimesSee product Of The Prime Factors
Product Of The Prime FactorsThe set of prime numbers which, when multiplied together, give the original number
Product RuleNumber of permutations = n1n2n3...
ProfitThe gain, in financial terms, taken from the price of selling less the cost of buying.
Proper FractionA fraction where the denominator is larger than the numerator.
Proper SubsetSets: where the subset does not contain all the elements of the original set
PropertyA feature of an item. Items can have several properties.
ProportionRelates a part of an amount to the whole amount. See also Ratio.
ProtractorA piece of equipment used to measure an amount of turn (in degrees).
PyramidA 3D shape that has a base that is a polygon and which rises to a point
Pythagoras` TheoremThe theorem states that *the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides*. Remember as @a^ + b^2 = c^2@ where @c@ is te longest side.
Quadratic FunctionAn expression with a squared term, but no higher power.
Quadratic SequenceA sequence of numbers, where succesive values where a squared term is included in the difference
QuadrilateralA 2D shape with four straight sides. The angles add up to 360 degrees.
QuartileA division of a set of data into four parts.
RadiusThe distance from the centre of a Circle to its Circumference.
RandomThe chance of an event occurring is not influenced by any other event
RangeThe difference between th ehigest value and the lowest value in a Dataset
Rate Of ChangeHow rate at which one thing changes when measured against another eg distance covered in time.
Rate Of PayThe amount received for a unit of time (hour, day, week, month or year). See Pay.
RatioDetermines how an amount is distributed by dividing into parts. The number of parts in each share is shown as part:part (with a colon).
RationalA rational number can be expressed as a fraction, with both numerator and denominator as integers
Rational NumbersAll numbers that can be written as a whole number or as a fraction (integers as both numerator and denominator)
Rationalising The DenominatorRemoving a surd as the denominator in a fraction by multiplying both the numerator and the denominator by the denominator.
Real NumbersAll numbers, including pi, √3
Real RootsFor a quadratic, the Discriminant is greater than or equal to zero. The solution can be expressed in Real numbers.
RearrangingChanging a formula or equation to make a solution easier: normally associated with changing the subject of a formula or equation.
ReciprocalThe inverse of a number: the number is divided into 1
Reciprocal BearingThe Bearing from the opposite direction of an original bearing. Differs from the original bearing by 180 degrees.
RectangleA Quadrilateral where all th eangles are 90 degrees, and opposite sides are of equal lengths.
Recurring DecimalThe decimal part of the number repeats itself forever: this may be a single number, or a group of numbers.
ReducedMake smaller in size.
ReflectionTransformations: a shape as it would be seen in a mirror
Reflex AngleAn angle over 180 degrees and up to (and not including) 360 degrees.
Regular PolygonA 2D shape with three or more sides. Each side has the same length and Interior Angles.
Relative FrequencyAfter collection of data, it is the occurence of an event compared against all possible events
RemainderThe amount left over after one integer has been divided by another
Resultant VectorThe vector that represents the result of acting on other vectors.
Reverse PercentageFinding the Original Amount from the final amount and the percentage change
RhombusSimilar to a Parallelogram, but where all sides are of equal length (and opposite angles are equal).
Right AngleAn angle of 90 degrees. Shown with a square (not an arc) on diagrams.
Right Angled TriangleA Triangle where one of the angles is 90 degrees.
RootsThe point or points on a graph that cross the *x*-axis (*y*=0)
RotationTurn a shape around a point: state direction of rotation, amount of turn and centre of rotation.
Rotational SymmetryRotaional Symmetry is where an object can be turned so that the turned shape lies exactly upon th einturned shape.
RoundingApproximating a number making it easier to handle. Rounding takes place to multiples of 10. 5 or greater rounds up; less than 5 rounds down
RowOn a table, a set of numbers reading along the table. See Column.
SampleA selection of a subset of data from a Population which should be representative of the entire population.
Sample Space DiagramA table showing all possible outcomes of an event. See Probability Space.
ScalarA value that is multiplying a term or a vector.
Scale FactorThe amount by which an object is reduced or enlarged. This can be shown as a ratio or a multiple. Sometimes shortened to sf.
Scalene TriangleA Triangle where all sides are different lengths, and are angles are different sizes.
ScalesOn a graph: indication of the values along an axis. On a plan or map: the ratio in size between the real object and the drawing.
Scatter GraphA graph of points showing the relationship (see Correlation) between two different sets of data
Second DifferenceIn quadratic sequences, the second difference is the difference between successive values in the first seuence. This difference will be a common differnce.
SecondsA brief interval of time: there are 60 seconds in a Minute. OR; a very small amount of turn/angle: there are 60 seconds in a Minute.
SectorAn area of a circle bounded by a Circumference and two Radii.
SegmentThat part of a circle bounded by a Circumference and a Chord.
Segment AngleThe angle made at the centre from the two points at each end of a segment (on the circumference)
Selling PriceThe price for which an item is sold. See also Cost Price.
SemicircleHalf of a circle bounded by the Diameter and the Circumference. It is also a Segment.
SequenceA list of numbers (or shapes) that are linked by a rule
SetA defined list of numbers or values. In a Venn Diagram, the set will be shown as a circle enclosing the numbers or values
Set TheoryThe organisation of items into groups, which can then be analysed mathematically
Short DivisionA division where the divisor consists of only one digit
Short MultiplicationA multiplication where the multiplier consists of only one digit
Significant FiguresThe digits at the start of a number. Leading zeroes are ignored.
SimilarIn geometry (or ratio), a shape that has the same angles but may have different lengths.
Simple FractionA Fraction where both Numerator and Denominator are Integers
Simple InterestWhere only the original amount is used to calculate interest for each time period.
Simple ShapeA defined geometric shape eg circle, semicircle, rectangle.
Simplest FormA fraction where the Numerator and the Denominator have no common factors
SimplifyingChanging a Fraction into its Simplest Form
SinThe relationship between the angle, the Hypotenuse and the Opposite side. Sin = Opposite / Hypotenuse.
SineSee Sin.
SketchNormally of a graph: show the axis, axis crossing points and the equation or function of the graph.
SolvedFinding the answer. Also: a solution is an answer.
SortTo place a list of numbers in order of value: either increasing or decreasing in value.
SpeedThe rate at which a distance is covered in a period of time.
SphereA circular object with no edges and no vertices.
Spread Of DataStatistics: the amount by which values differ from the mean or median.
SquareNumber: to multiply a number by itself. Shown by a small 2 following, above, the number. Geometry: Similar to a rectangle, but where all the sides are the same length (and all angles are 90 degrees).
Square NumberA number that is a square of another number.
Square RootWhat number, multiplied by itself, would give the number being square rooted?
Square SequenceA sequence generated by squaring the term value
Square TermA term (which may consist of a variable and a constant within a bracket) which is squared.
Square-based PyramidA 3d shape where the base is a square and the faces lead to a point at the top.
Stacked Bar ChartA Bar Chart where individul bars are subdivided into related parts.
Standard DeviationA calculation which is a measure of how a set of values varies from the mean
Standard FormA number that consists of a decimal part between 1 and 10, and a power of 10 multiplier part
Stationary ValueA point on a curve where the gradient is zero, and the curve then turns to continue in the same direction as before.
Stem-and-leaf DiagramAn organised listing of values. Each value is split into a main part (the stem) and a single digit (the leaf).
StoneAn imperial measurement of weight. A stone has 14 pounds.
Straight LineA straight line is the shortest distance between two point. A line has a length.
StrataA layer. In probability, it involves identifying layers based on criteria to allow selection within those layers.
Stratified SampleA survey of a part of a population. A Stratified Sample randomly selects by proportion based on a criteria within the population.
Student LoanIn the UK, a tax on pay, used to repay the cost for an individual attending university.
SubjectThe variable in a formula or equation that will be found by solving the formula or equation: th esubject will be on its own on one side of the equals sign.
SubsetSets: a set where all the elements in the subset belong to a larger set
SubstitutionReplacing variables (letters) in an expression with a known number.
Subtended AngleThe angle made when viewed from a given point
SubtractingCarrying out a Subtraction
SubtractionReduce the value of one number by the value of another (also Subtract, Subtracting, Minus)
SurdAn irrational number; normally includes a root; with the denominator as an integer
Surface AreaThe area bounded by edges on an object.
SymmetryPart of an object can be reflected exactly upon itself.
SystematicCompleting a task in an ordered manner
Take AwaySame as subtract
Tally ChartA method of data collection based on marking up a prepared sheet, set out in rows based on the data being analysed.
TanThe relationship between the angle, the Adjacent side and the Opposite side. Tan = Opposite / Adjacent.
Tera-Large number prefix: 1 x 1012
TermAlgebra: part of an expression, separated from other parts by arithmetic operators. Sequences: an individualnumber or shape in a sequence.
Term-To-TermA rule that describes how one number (or shape) in a sequence is linked to another number (or shape) in the same sequence.
Terminating DecimalA decimal number which ends after a number of digits
TetrahedronA shape where each of the four faces is an equilateral triangle.
Theoretical ProbabilityThe probability of an outcome assuming that there is no bias in the execution of the event.
Time SeriesA set of data that is organised by time: a historic view of data
TimesAnother word for multiply ie 3 times 4 is three multiplied by 4
ToleranceA description of how accurate a measurement may be taken.normally given as + or - a value.
TonAn imperial measurement of weight. There are 2240 pounds in a ton.
TonneA metric measurement of weight. This is equal to 1000 kilograms.
Top-heavy FractionA fraction where the Numerator is greater than the Denominator
TransformationIn geometry: translate, reflect, rotate or enlarge an itm.
TranslationTransformations: movement on a shpe from one position to another. See Vector.
TrapeziaPlural of Trapezium.
TrapeziumA Quadrlateral where two sides are parallel.
Tree DiagramSee Frequency Tree, Probability Tree or Prime Factor Tree
TrendThe data will be moving towards an outcome.
Trial And ImprovementEstimating an answer; and progressively working towards a more accurate answer
TriangleA three-sided polygon. Interior angles of a triangle add up to 180 degrees.
Triangle Law For Vector AdditionIf two vectors are added together (by placing the second vector at the end of the first) the result is a vector linking the start of the first vector to the end of the second.
Triangular PrismA triangle shape that is stretched into 3D.
Triangular SequenceA sequence generated by creating a new term value by adding 1 to the previous term value.
Trigonometric RatioThe relationship in a triangle between the sides and the angles. The values are the Sine, Cosine and Tangent.
Turning PointThe point on a non-linear graph where the gradient changes from positive to negative, or vice-versa.
Two-way TableA set of data with two measured values organised by both rows and columns
UnbiasedAnother word for fair
Ungrouped DataData that has not been counted into groups or ranges
UnionSets; the list of elements that come from combining two (or more) sets
Unique Factorization TheoremEvery integer greater than 1 is either a Prime Number or can be factorised uniquely by the Product of its Primes.
Unit PricingThe cost of one item.
Unitary MethodFor a proportion, set one side of the proportion equal to 1. This allows different prportions to be compared. See Best Buys.
Universal SetThe set that contains all possible elements that describe a situation
UnknownIn algebra, it is a value that is not known and is normally represented by a single letter.
Unlike TermsEither the letter (or letters) or the power is different between two terms; they cannot be added or subtracted.
Upper BoundThe highest value a measurement may be, given a tolerance.
Upper QuartileAfter a set of data has been placed in order, the highest quarter point of the data
VATAnother name for Value Added Tax
Value Added TaxSales tax, added at the point of sale. In he UK and the EU, sales normally include VAT
VariableA letter within an expression: the variable represents a number.
VectorA vector is a measure that has both a Magnitude (size) and direction.
VelocityThe amount of distance covered in a unit of time. Note that velocity has a direction, and is a vector.
Venn DiagramA diagram used to compare the members, or contents, of two data sets.
Vertical Line ChartA graph that displays ungrouped discrete data using the height of the vertical line to indicate frequency
Vertically Opposite AnglesGeometry: when two lines cross, the opposite angles are always equal
VerticesPlural of Vertex
VolumeThe capacity of a 3d shape.
Volume RatioA volume ratio increases (or decreases) by the cube of the linear ratio.
Vulgar FractionA Fraction where both Numerator and Denominator are Integers (see Simple Fraction)
WeekA period of 7 days.
WeightThe amount of mass in an object where a force is being applied (eg gravity). See Mass.
Whole NumberAnother name for an Integer.
Work OutComplete a calculation to obtain an answer
X-axisOn a graph, a horizontal line showing increases in the value of the x-coordinate.
Y-axisOn a graph, a vertical line showing increases in the value of the y-coordinate.
YardAn imperial measurement of length. There are 3 yards in a foot. See Foot and Inches.
YearThe time taken by the earth to complete one orbit around the sun, but see Leap Year.
The wtMaths App is available for the iPhone and iPad on the App Store and covers Maths for GCSE (Higher and Foundation). The app is loaded with exam-style questions: in-app purchases are required to unlock all of the questions.