Percentage Increase and Decrease

## Percentage Increase and Decrease

100% of an amount is the same value as the original amount.

103% is frac(103)(100) = 1.03 times larger than the original amount.

The number 1.03 is known as a multiplier.

To calculate a multiplier increase, divide the percentage by 100 (to make it a decimal), then add it to 1. Multiply this against the original amount:

Increase 80 by 5%

Multiplier = 1 + frac(5)(100) = 1.05

Calculation = 80 x 1.05 = 84

To calculate a multiplier decrease, divide the percentage by 100 and subtract from 1:

Reduce 92 by 4%

Multiplier = 1 - frac(4)(100) = 0.96

Calculation = 92 x 0.96 = 88.32

## Example 1

A brand of washing powder is being sold on a special offer. The offer states that there is an additional 30% (by weight) compared to the normal box. If the normal weight is 3200g, what weight is sold in the special offer box?

The multiplier is 1 + frac(30)(100) = 1.3

The new amount is 3200 x 1.3

= 4160g

The multiplier is 1 - frac(15)(100) = 0.85 (it is a decrease)