Short Multiplication

## Short Multiplication

Multiplication consists of adding a value to itself a number of times. For example, 6 x 3 takes the number 6 and adds 3 of them together (6 + 6 + 6 = 6 x 3 = 18).

Short Multiplication is where two numbers are being multiplied together and one of them is a single digit. Place the numbers in two rows, with the smaller number on the second row. The shorter number is placed in the units column.

Using the smaller number, multiply the larger number one digit at a time, working from right to left. If the result for any of these single multiplications is ten or more, then the tens amount is carried forward and added to the result of the calculation in the next column.

Carry on until all the digits have been multiplied.er the decimal point.

## Example 1

Multiply 373 by 6.

Units: 6 x 3 = 18, answer 8 and carry 1 into the tens column

Tens: 6 x 7 = 42, and add the carried 1, = 43, answer 3 and carry 4

Hundreds: 6 x 3 = 18, plus the carried 4, = 22, answer 2 and carry 2

For the thousands, there is only the carried 2 from the previous calculation.

 2 4 1 3 7 3 x 6 2 2 3 8

## Example 2

It is 344 miles from Brighton to Newcastle.  A lorry has to complete the return journey four times next week.  How many miles will the lorry have covered altogether on these journeys?

Note that four return journeys are equal to eight single journeys.

8 x 4 = 32, write 2 and carry 3 forward to the tens

8 x 4 = 32, plus carried 3 is 35; write 5 and carry 3 into the hundreds

8 x 3 = 24, plus carried 3 is 27, write 7 and 2 carried forward

Finally, the carried 2, is 2.

 2 3 3 3 4 4 x 8 2 7 5 2